A combination of "tool competence" and cognitive skills are needed.
Ebubekir Cakmak is a Turkish educational researcher who specializes in digital and media literacy, digital storytelling, and issues of representation. Until 2016, he was a tenured professor in the faculty of education at Abant Izzet Baysal University. He helped to author the national Media Literacy Curriculum for the Turkish Ministry of Education in 2014, and contributed to the curricul;um in Secondary Reading, Writing and Authorship as well. He helped develop the National Children and Media Strategy and Implementation Plan. With his colleague Sait Tuzel, he wrote an influential paper about the future of media literacy in Turkey entitled, "Debates about the Future of Media Literacy in Turkey," published in the Journal of Media Literacy Education.